The cell wall is no longer considered an inert and silent structure on the outside of the cell but instead, seems to be involved in an extensive cross-talk with the cytoplasm. Turgor, osmosensing, mechanical stress and other strains - all are mediated through the wall. The walled cell senses these signals through integral plasma membrane proteins whose extracytoplasmic domains are extended to the wall and intracytoplasmic domains are coupled with the components of cytoplasmic signal pathways. With its dynamic interactions the cell wall is comparable with the extracellular matrix of animal cells. Only a small part of the sensory machinery has been revealed in both plant and fungal cells.
cross-talk; WAK; cytoskeleton; cell wall integrity; signalling
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