Alzheimer's disease is one of the most important diseases related to ageing. The social and human cost is very high especially because of the increase in the normal life span in developed countries. There is presently no cure for the disease and stimulating the cholinergic central neurotransmission is today the only therapeutic approach which has been shown to successfully improve the cognitive state in a significant population of patients. In such a context, research projects should be aimed specifically at reducing brain lesions resulting from the disease, especially those due to the amyloid peptide accumulation, and at reducing or even halting the clinical evolution of the disease and consequent neurodegenerative processes.
neuroprotection; amyloid protein precursor (APP); betaA4 protein; tau protein; astrocytes; excitatory amino acids
Allain H, Bentue-Ferrer D, Trubut O, Gauthier S, Michel BF, Drieu-La-Rochelle C: Alzheimer's disease: the pharmacological pathway. Fund Clin Pharmacol 17:419-428, 2003.
Bains JS, Shaw CA: Neurodegenerative disorders in humans: the role of glutathione in oxidative stress-mediated neuronal death. Brain Res Rev 25:335-358, 1997.
Bush AI: Metal complexing agents as therapies for Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging 23:1031-1038, 2002.
Castro A, Martinez A: Inhibition of tau protein phosphorylation: a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Exp Opin Ther Patents 10:1519-1527, 2000.
Citron M: Emerging Alzheimer's disease therapies: inhibition of beta-secretase. Neurobiol Aging 23:1017-1022, 2002.
Cutler NR, Sramek JJ: Review of the next generation of Alzheimer's disease therapeutics: challenges for drug development. Prog. Neuro-Psychopharmacol. Biol Psychiat 25:27-57, 2001.
DeFeudis FV: Gingko biloba extract (Egb 761). From chemistry to the clinic. Ullstein Medical, Wiesbaden, pp. 401, 1998.
Doble A: The role of excitotoxicity in neurodegenerative disease: implications for therapy. Pharmacol Ther 81:163-221, 1999.
Emilien G, Beyreuther K, Masters C, Maloteaux JM: Prospects for pharmacological intervention in Alzheimer's disease. Arch Neurol 57:454-459, 2000.
Friedlander RM: Mechanism of disease: apoptosis and caspases in neurodegenerative diseases. N Engl J Med 348:1365-1375, 2003.
Gandy S: Molecular basis for anti-amyloid therapy in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging 23:1009-1016, 2002.
Gao WQ, Well RJ, Dugich-Djordjevic M: The therapeutic potentials of neurotrophic factors for diseases of the nervous system. Expert Opin Ther Patents 7:325-338, 1997.
Gasparini F, Lingenhohl K, Stoehr N, Flor PJ, Heinrich M, Vranesic L, Biollaz M, Allgeier H, Heckendorn R, Urwyler S, Varney MA, Johnston EC, Hess SD, Rao SP, Sacaan AI, Santori EM, Velicelebi G, Khun R: 2-methyl-6- (phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP), a potent, selective and systemically active mGlu5 receptor antagonist. Neuropharmacology 38:1493-1503, 1999.
Had-Aissouni L, Re DB, Nieoullon A, Kerkerian-LeGoff L: Importance of astrocytic inactivation of synaptically released glutamate for cell survival in the central nervous system - are astrocytes vulnerable to low intracellular glutamate concentrations? J Physiol (Paris) 96:317-322, 2002.
Hock C, Konietzko U, Streffer JR: Antibodies against beta-amyloid slow cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. Neuron 38:547-554, 2003.
Lesh KP: Gene transfert to the brain: emerging therapeutic strategy in psychiatry? Biol Psych 45:247-253, 2002.
Nieoullon A: Bases cellulaires des processus degeneratifs. Therapie 53:21-29, 1998.
Re DB, Boucraut J, Samuel D, Birman S, Kerkerian-LeGoff L, Had-Aissouni L: Glutamate transport alteration triggers differentiation-state selective oxidative death of cultured astrocytes: a mechanism different from excitotoxicity depending on intracellular GSH content. J Neurochem 85:1159-1170, 2003.
Roberts SB: gamma-secretase inhibitors and Alzheimer's disease. Adv Drug Delivery Rev 54:1579-1588, 2002.
Rothstein JD, Dykes-Hoberg G, Pardo CA, Bristol LA, Jin L, Kuncl RW, Kanai Y, Hediger MA, Wang Y, Schielke JP, Weltry FD: Knock out of glutamate transporters reveals a major role for astroglial transport in excitotoxicity and clearance of glutamate. Neuron 16:675-686, 1996.
Scorer CA: Preclinical and clinical challenges in the development of disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease. Drug Discovery Today 6:1207-1219, 2001.
Sramek JJ, Cutler NR: Recent developments in the drug treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Drug and Aging 14:359-373, 1999.
Xu H, Gouras GK, Greenfield JP: Estrogen reduces neuronal generation of Alzheimer beta-amyloid peptides. Nature Med 4:447-451, 1998.
Nieoullon A. Neurodegenerative diseases and neuroprotection: current views and prospects. J Appl Biomed. 9: 173-183, 2011.
Ranganatha SR, Malviya M, Kumar YCS, Vinaya K, Prasanna DS, Subhash MN, Rangappa KS. Effect of novel amino acids and dipeptides substituted 3-morpholino arecoline derivatives as muscarinic receptor 1 agonists in Alzheimer's dementia models. Int J Pept Res Ther. 15: 323-337, 2009.
Kunesova G, Hlavacek J, Patocka J, Evangelou A, Zikos C, Benaki D, Paravatou-Petsotas M, Pelecanou M, Livaniou E, Slaninova J. The multiple T-maze in vivo testing of the neuroprotective effect of humanin analogues. Peptides. 29: 1982-1987, 2008.
Patocka J, Strunecka A. Insulin and memory. [Inzulin a pamet]. Psychiatrie. 11: 18-20, 2007.
Patocka J, Slaninova J, Kunesova G. Neuroprotective peptides as drug candidates against Alzheimer's disease. J Appl Biomed. 3: 67-73, 2005.
Strunecka A, Patocka J, Sarek M. How does lithium mediate its therapeutic effects? J Appl Biomed. 3: 25-35, 2005.