The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycaemic effect of ethanolic extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. (Sapindaceae) leaves on normal and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced into male albino Wistar rats by intraperitonial administration of STZ. The Cardiospermum halicacabum leaf extract (CHE) was administered orally at three different doses to normal and STZ-diabetic rats for 45 days. The diabetic rats showed an increase in levels of blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and a decrease in the levels of insulin and haemoglobin (Hb). In addition, diabetic rats showed a significant reduction in the activity of glucokinase and an elevation in the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase. Treatment with CHE significantly decreased plasma glucose and HbA1c, and increased the levels of insulin and Hb. CHE administration to diabetic rats reversed these enzyme activities in a significant manner. Thus, the results show that CHE possesses an antihyperglycaemic activity and provide evidence for its traditional usage in the control of diabetes. The 200 mg dose of the extract produced a better effect than 50 or 100 mg doses.
Cardiospermum halicacabum; antihyperglycaemia; streptozotocin; insulin; carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes
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