Journal of APPLIED BIOMEDICINE
ISSN 1214-0287 (on-line)
ISSN 1214-021X (printed)

Volume 6 (2008), No 2, p 65-72




Advances in chronohaematology

Josef Berger

Address: Josef Berger, University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Health and Social Studies, Emy Destinove, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
berger@jcu.cz

Received 26th March 2008.
Revised 25th May 2008.
Published online 2nd June 2008.

Full text article (pdf)
Full text article (html)

SUMMARY
The circadian rhythms of the haemato-immune system seem to be synchronized by two clocks: the hypothalamic endogenous, and the exogenous which is based on environmental stimuli. The suprachiasmatic nucleus is not only a circadian clock, it also synchronizes peripheral oscillators and integrates light information through the retino-hypothalamic tract. The role of the "peripheral" clock genes in mature leucocytes still remains an unanswered question as well as the role of clock proteins in "non-clock" physiology. The circadian rhythms may be a basis for circannual variations, although the molecular bases of such rhythms remain a mystery. There are several hormones which have a significant impact on haematological characteristics; the finding of a lower superoxide release from granulocytes at higher melatonin levels opens up new research opportunities for melatonin therapy. Discrepancies between circadian changes in mRNAs and the appropriate protein participating in haemocoagulation and fibrinolysis may indicate that we do not know their control processes or their genetic background well, although this problem has now opened up a new area for pharmacological research. The endogenous clock facilitates an alternation in the immune system which counters external attacks in daytime and induces repair and development by night.

KEY WORDS
circadian; seasonal; clock gene; haemostasis; immunity; melatonin; superoxide


REFERENCES
Alcivar A: Stem cell rhythm. Nature Med 14:252, 2008.

Arjona A, Sarkar DA: Circadian oscillations of clock genes, cytolytic factors, and cytokines in rat NK cells. J Immunol 174:7618-7624, 2005.
[PubMed]

Arjona A, Sarkar DA: Evience supporting a circadian control of natural killer cell function. Brain Behav Immunol 20:469-476, 2006.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arjona A, Sarkar DA: Are circadian rhythms the code of hypothalic-immune communication? Insight from natural killer cells. Neurochem Res 33:708-718, 2008.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balog T, Sobocanec S, Sverko V, Krolo I, Rocic B, Marotti M, Marotti T: The influence of season on oxidant-antioxidant status in trained and sedentary subjects. Life Sci 78:1441-1447, 2006.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berger J: Seasonal influences on circadian rhythms in the blood picture of laboratory mice, Part I: leucocytes and erythrocytes, Part II: lymphocytes, eosinophils and segmented neutrophils. Z Versuchstierkd 22:122-134, 1980a.
[PubMed]

Berger J: Leucokinetic study. Morphology of the bone marrow and blood after experimental induction of marrow hypoplasia by cyclophosphamide in laboratory rats. Fol haematol 107:862-877, 1980b.

Berger J: Regulation of circadian rhythms. J Appl Biomed 2:131-140, 2004a.
[JAB]

Berger J: Chronohaematology. J Appl Biomed 2:179-185, 2004b.
[JAB]

Berger J: Current progress in chronohaematology. J Appl Biomed 4:111-114, 2006.
[JAB]

Berger J: A two-clock model of circadian timing in the immune system of mammals. Path Biol 56: 286-291, 2008.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boivin DB, James FO, Wu A, Cho-Park PF, Xiong H, Sun ZS: Circadian clock genes oscillate in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Blood 102:4143-4145, 2003.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerutti RD, Scaglione MC, Tarabla HD, Boggio JC: Biological rhythm of leukocyte concentration in calves under natural conditions. Biol Rhythm Res 37:451-454, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Challet E: Entrainment of the suprachiasmatic clockwork in diurnal and nocturnal mammals. Endocrinology 148:5648-5655, 2007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen ST, Choo KB, Hou MF, Yeh KT, Kuo SJ, Chang JG: Deregulated expression of the per1, per2 and per3 genes in breast cancers. Carcinogenesis 26:1241-1246, 2005.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornelissen G, Hlaberg F, Zeman M, Jozsa R, Tarquini R, Perfetto F, Salti R, Bakken EE: Toward a chronome (time structure) of emlatonin. In Pandi-Perumal SR, Cardinali DP (eds): Molatonin: from Molecules to Therapy. Nova Biomed Books, New York, p. 135-176, 2007.

Dardente H, Cermakian N: Molecular circadian rhythms in central and peripheral clocks in mammals. Chronobiol Int 24:195-213, 2007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimitrov S, Lange T, Benedict C, Nowell MA, Jones SA, Scheller J, Rose-John S, Born J: Sleep enhances IL-6 trans-signaling in humans. FASEB J 20:2174-2176, 2006.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimitrov S, Lange T, Nohroudi K, Born J: Number and function of circulating human antigen presenting cells regulated by sleep. Sleep 30:401-411, 2007.
[PubMed]

Filipski E, King VM, Etienne MC, Li XM, Claustrat B, Granda TG, Milano G, Hastings MH, Levi F: Persistent twenty-four hour changes in liver and bone marrow despite suprachiasmatic nuclei ablaton in mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 287:R844-851, 2004.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu L, Pelicano H, Liu J, Huang P, Lee C: The circadian gene Priod2 plays an important role in tumour suppression and DNA damage response in vivo. Cell 111:41-50, 2002.
[CrossRef] [CrossRef]

Fukuya H, Emoto N, Nonaka H, Yagita K, Okamura H, Yokoyama M: Circadian expression of clock genes in human peripheral leukocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 354:924-928, 2007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galijasevic S, Abdulhamid I, Abu-Soud HM: Melatonin is a potent inhibitor for myeloperoxidase. Biochemistry 47:2668-2677, 2008.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geron R, Shurtz-Swirski R, Sela S, Gurevitch Y, Tanasijtschouk T, Orr ZS, Shkolnik GS, Tanhilevski O, Kristal B: Polymorphonuclear leucocyte priming in long intermittent nocturnal haemodialysis patients - is melatonin a player? Nephrol Dial Transplant 21:3196-3201, 2006.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gery S, Komatu N, Baldjyan L, Yu A, Koo D, Koeffler HP: The circadian gene Per1 plays an important role in cell growth and DNA damane control in human cancer cells. Mol Cell 22:375-382, 2006.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goncharova ND, Shmaliy AV, Bogatyrenko TN, Koltover VK: Correlation between activity of antioxidant enzymes and circadian rhythms of corticosteroids in Macaca mulatta monkeys of different age. Exp Gerontol 41:778-783, 2006.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guney Y, Hicsonmez A, Uluoglu C, Guney HZ, Turkcu UO, Take G, Yucel B, Caglar G, Bilgihan A, Erdogan D, Andreu MN, Kurtman C, Zengil H: Melatonin prevents inflammation and oxidative stress caused by abdominopelvic and total body irradiation of rat small intestine. Braz J Med Biol Res 40:1305-1314, 2007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunga HC, Kirsch KA, Roecker L, Kohlberg, Tiedemann J, Steinach M, Schobersberger W: Erythropoietin regulation in humans under different environmental and experimental conditions. Resp Physiol Neurobiol 158:287-297, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Halberg F, Visscher MB, Bittner JJ: Eosinophil rhythm in mice: range of occurrence; effects of illumination, feeding and adenalectomy. Am J Physiol 174:109-122, 1953.
[PubMed]

Halberg F, Cornelissen G, Katinas G, Syutkina EV, Sothern RB, Zslavskaya R, Halberge Francine, Watanabe Y, Schwarzkopff O, Otsuka K, Tarquini R, Frederico P, Siggelova J: Transdisciplinary unifying implications of circadian findings in the 1950s. J Circadian Rhythms 1:2(p.1-61), 2003.

Halberg F, Cornelissen G, Katinas G, Tvildiani L, Gigolashvili M, Janashia K, Toba T, Revilla M, Regal P, Sothern RB, Wendt HW, Wang Z, Zeman M, Jozsa R, Singh RB, Mitsutake G et al.: Chronobiology's progress. Part I, season's appreciations 2004-2005: time-, frequency-, phase-, variable-, individual-, age- and site-specific chronomics. J Appl Biomed 4:1-38, 2006.

Haus E: Biologic rhythms in hematology. Pathol Biol 44:618-630, 1996.

Haus E: Chronobiology in the endocrine system. Adv Drug Delivery Rev 59:985-1014, 2007a.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus E: Chronobiology of hemostasis and inferences for the chronotherapy of coagulation disorders and thrombosis prevention. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 59:966-984, 2007b.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus E, Smolensky M: Biological clocks and shift work: circadian dysregulation and potential long-term effects. Cancer Causes Control 17:489-500, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Hazlerigg DG, Wagner GC: Seasonal photoperiodism in vertebrates: from coincidence to amplitude. Trends Endocrinol Metab 17:83-91, 2006.
[CrossRef]

James FO, Cermakian N, Boivin DB: Circadian rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, and clock gene expression during simulated night shift work. Sleep 30:1427-1436, 2007a.
[PubMed]

James FO, Boivin DB, Charbonneau S, Belanger V, Cermakian N: Expression of clock genes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells throughout the sleep/wake and circadian cycles Chronobiol. Int 24:1009-1034, 2007b.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiank C, Koerner Pia, Kesler W, Traeger T, Maier S, Heidecke CD, Schuett C: Seasonal variations in inflammatory responses to sepsis and stress in mice. Crit Care Med 35:2352-2358, 2007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko CH, Takahashi JS: Molecular components of the mammalian circadian clock. Hum Mol Genet 15:R271-R277, 2006.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kondratov RV: A role of the circadian system and circadian proteins in aging. Ageing Res Rev 6:12-27, 2007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kronfeld-Schor N, Dayan T: Activity patterns of rodents: the physiological ecology of biological rhythms. Biol Rhythm Res 39:193-211, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Krugluger W, Brandstaetter A, Kallay E, Schueller J, Krexner E, Kriwanek S, Bonner E, Cross HS: Regulation of genes of the circadian clock in human colon cancer: reduced period-1 and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase transcription correlates in high-grade tumors. Cancer Res 67:7917-7922, 2007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lader M: Limitations of current medical treatments for depression: disturbed circadian rhythms as a possible therapeutic target. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 17:743-755, 2007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakin-Thomas PL: New model for circadian systems in microorganisms. FEMS Microbiol Lett 259:1-6, 2006.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakin-Thomas PL, Brody S: Circadian rhythms in microoranisms: new complexities. Annu Rev Microbiol 58:489-519, 2004.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamont EW, Legault-Coutu D, Cermakian N, Boivin DB: The role of circadian clock genes in mental disorders. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 9:333-342, 2007.
[PubMed]

Lange T, Dimitrov S, Fehm HL, Westermann J, Born J: Shift of monocyte function toward cellular immunity during sleep. Arch Intern Med 166:1695-1700, 2006.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larssen KS, Lyberg T: Oxidative status - Age- and circadian variations? A study in leukocytes/plasma. Neuroendocrinol Lett 27:445-452, 2006.
[PubMed]

Lincoln GA, Clarke IJ, Hut RA, Hazlerigg DG: Characterizing a mammalian circannual pacemaker. Science 314:1941-1944, 2006.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maharaj DS, Glass BD, Daya S: Melatonin: new places in therapy. Biosci Rep 27:299-320, 2007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mendoza J: Circadian clocks: setting time by food. J Neuroendocrinol 19:127-137, 2007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mormont MC, Waterhouse J, Bleuzen P, Giacchetti S Jami A, Bodan A, Lellouch J, Misset JL, Touitou Y, Levi F: Marked 24-h rest/activity rhythms are associated with better quality of life, better response, and longer survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and good performance status. Clin Cancer Res 6:3038-3045, 2000.
[PubMed]

Mussi C, Crippa S, Bonardi C, Fontana A, Caprotti R, Uggeri F: Endocrine and immunological alterations during cancer processes. Int Surg 91:68-71, 2006.
[PubMed]

Novak CM, Ehlen JC, Albers HE: Photic and nonphotic inputs to the diurnal circadian clock. Biol Rhythm Res 39:291-304, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Ohkura N, Oishi K, Sekine Y, Atsumi G, Ishida N, Matsuda J, Horie S: Comparative study of circadian variations in numbers of peripheral blood cells among mouse strains: unique feature of C3H/HeN mice. Biol Pharm Bull 30:1177-1180, 2007a.
[CrossRef]

Ohkura N, Oish K, Sakata T, Kadota K, Kasmatsu M, Fukushirna N, Kurata A, Tamai Y, Shira H, Atsumi GI, Ishida N, Matsuda J, Horie S: Circadian variations in coagulation and fibrinolytc factors among four different strains of mice. Chronobiol Int 24:651-669, 2007b.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oishi K, Ohkura N, Amagai N, Ishida N: Involvement of circadian clock gene Clock in diabetes-induced circadian augmentation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression in the mouse heart. FENS Lett 579:3555-3559, 2005.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oishi K, Ohkura N, Wakabaashi M, Shirai H, Sato K, Matsuda J, Atsumi G, Ishida N: Clock is involved in obesity-induced disordered fibrinolysis in ob/ob mice by regulating PAI-1 gene expression. J Thromb Haemost 4:1774-1780, 2006.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paredes SD, Terron MP, Marchena AM, Barriga C, Pariente JA, Reiter RJ, Rodriguez AB: Effect of exogenous melatonin on viability, ingestion capacity, and free-radical scavenging in heterophils from young and old ringdoves (Streptopelia risoria). Mol Cell Biochem 304:305-314, 2007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quaranta A, Tateo A, Siniscalchi M, Padalino B, Iacoviello R, Centoducati P: Influence oftraining on cortisol plasma levels and other hematic parameters in standardbred trotters. Ippologia 17:5-10, 2006.

Reppert SM, Weaver DR: Coordination of circadian timing in mammals. Nature 418:935-941, 2002.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salazar-Juarez A, Parra-Gamez L, Mendez SB, Leff P, Anton B: Non-photic entrainment. Physiological mechanism. Part II. (in Spanish) Salud Mental 30:69-79, 2007.

Shadan FF: Circadian tempo: a paradigm for genome stability? Med Hypoth 68:883-891, 2007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sher L, Oquendo MA, Galfalvy HC, Zalsman G, Cooper TB, Mann JJ: Higher cortisol levels in spring and fall in patients with major depression. Progr. Neuro-Psychopharmacol. Biol Psychiatry 29:529-534, 2005.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smaaland R, Lacrum O, Sothern R, Sletvold O, Bjerknes R, Lote K: Colony forming unit-granulocyte-macrophage and DNA synthesi of human bone marrow are circadian stage-dependent and show covariation. Blood 79:2281-2287, 1992.
[PubMed]

Touitou Y, Bohdan A: Circadian and seasonal variations of physiological and biochemical determinats of acute myocardial infarction. Biol Rhythm Res 38:169-179, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Tsinkalovsky O, Rosenluind B, Lacrum OD, Eiken HG: Clock gene expression in purified mouse hematopoietic stem cells. Exp Hematol 33:100-107, 2005.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsinkalovsky O, Filipski E, Rosenlund B, Sothern RB, Eiken HG, Wu MW, Claustrat B, Bayer J, Levi F, Laerum OD: Circadian expression of clock genes in purified hematopoietic stem cells is developmentally regulated in mouse bone marrow. Exp Hematol 34:1249-1261, 2006.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsinkalovsky O, Smaaland R, Rosenlund B, Sothern RB, Hirt A, Steine S, Badiee A, Abrahamsen JF, Eiken HG, Lacrum OD: Circadian variations in clock gene expression of human bone marrow CD34(+) cells. J Biol Rhythms 22:140-150, 2007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Someren EJW, Riemersma-Van Der Lek RF: Live to the rhythm, slave to the rhythm. Sleep Med Rev 11:465-484, 2007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner GC, Johnson JD, Clarke IJ, Lincoln GA, Hazlerigg DG: Redefining the limits of day length responsiveness in a seasonal mammal. Endocrinology 149:32-39, 2007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wronka M, Maleszewska, Stepinska U, Markowska M: Diurnal differences in melatonin effets on intracellulat Ca2+ concentration in chiscken spleen leukocytes in vitro. J Pineal Res 44:134-140, 2008.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yerer MB, Aydogan S: The importance of circadian rhythm alterations in erythrocyte deformability. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 35:143-147, 2006.
[PubMed]

Zak-Nejmark T, Nowak IA, Kraus-Filarska M: Circadian variations of histamine binding to lymphocytes and neutrophils and skin reactivity to histamine in atopic and healthy subjects. Arch Immunol Ther Exper (Warsz.) 54:283-287, 2006.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeman M, Vican M, Monosikova J, Herichova I: Deregulated expression of the per2 gene in human colorectal carcinoma. Mol Med Rep 1: in press, 2008.
CITED

Delgado J, Terron MP, Garrido M, Pariente JA, Barriga C, Rodriguez AB, Paredes SD. Diets enriched with a Jerte Valley cherry-based nutraceutical product reinforce nocturnal behaviour in young and old animals of nocturnal (Rattus norvegicus) and diurnal (Streptopelia risoria) chronotypes. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr. 97: 137-145, 2013.

Giannetto C, Fazio F, Alberghina D, Panzera M, Piccione G. Constant darkness disrupt daily rhythm of adrenocorticotrophin in horses. J Appl Biomed. 11: 41-45, 2013.

Berger J. Influence of food restriction on mammalian immunity. J Appl Biomed. 11: 1-5, 2013.

Giannetto C, Casella S, Giudice E, Marafioti S, Fazio F, Piccione G. Daily rhythms of acute phase proteins in cattle under different natural environmental conditions. Livestock Sci. 149: 195-200, 2012.

Giudice E, Messina V, Marafioti S, Monteverde V, Bazzano M, Piccione G, Guercio A. Influence of Brucella infection on circadian rhythm of haematological parameters in dairy cows. Large Anim Rev. 18: 75-77, 2012.

Piccione G, Marafioti S, Giannetto C, Faggio C, Panzera M, Fazio F. The role of the light/dark cycle in the daily rhythm of serum proteins in Equus caballus. J Appl Biomed. 10: 29-34, 2012.

Piccione G, Giannetto C, Marafioti S, Casella S, Assenza A, Fazio F. Effect of different farming management on daily total locomotor activity in sheep. J Veter Behav: Clin Appl Res. 6: 243-247, 2011.

McClung CR. Plant biology: Defence at dawn. Nature. 470: 44-45, 2011.

Giannetto C, Fazio F, Casella S, Assenza A, Marafioti S, Piccione G. Comparison of daily rhythms of oxygen metabolites and serum barrier to oxidation in domestic animals. Cent Eur J Biol. 6: 91-98, 2011.

Mateos SS, Sanchez CL, Paredes SD, Barriga C, Rodriguez AB. Circadian Levels of Serotonin in Plasma and Brain after Oral Administration of Tryptophan in Rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 104: 52-59, 2009.

Atanassova PA, Terzieva DD, Dimitrov BD. Impaired Nocturnal Melatonin in Acute Phase of Ischaemic Stroke: Cross-Sectional Matched Case-Control Analysis. J Neuroendocrinol. 21: 657-663, 2009.

Mongrain V, Cermakian N. Clock genes in health and diseases. J Appl Biomed. 7: 15-33, 2009.

BACK