ISSN 1214-0287 (on-line)
ISSN 1214-021X (printed)

Volume 6 (2008), No 3, p 139-145

Changes in CD4+ cell count, lipid profile and liver enzymes in hiv infection and AIDS patients

Palanisamy Pasupathi, Govindaswamy Bakthavathsalam, Ganesan Saravanan1, Ayyaswamy Devaraj

Address: Palanisamy Pasupathi, Institute of Laboratory Medicine, K. G. Hospital and Post Graduate Medical Institute, Coimbatore-641 018, Tamil Nadu, India

Received 30th April 2008.
Revised 2nd June 2008.
Published online 16th September 2008.

Full text article (pdf)

This study was designed to find the correlation between changes in CD4+ cell count, lipid profile and liver marker enzymes in HIV-infected and AIDS patients. The study population consisted of 150 subjects, age and sex-matched and divided into three groups (control subjects (n=50), HIV infected (n=50) and AIDS patients (n=50)). We observed a significant reduction in CD4+ cell count in HIV/AIDS patients when compared to control subjects. Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were found to be decreased significantly in HIV/AIDS patients when compared with normal counterparts. On the other hand, the levels of triglyceride (TG) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) were markedly elevated in HIV/AIDS patients compared to normal subjects. The activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) observed in HIV/AIDS patients were significantly higher than in the control group. Further, the above mentioned hematological and biochemical variables were found to be affected more significantly in AIDS patients when compared with HIV infected subjects. Hence, it may be concluded that CD4+ cell cont, lipid profile and liver enzymes can be a good index of disease progression in HIV infection and AIDS patients.

HIV; AIDS; CD4+; cell count; lipids; liver enzymes

Anastos K, Lu D, Shi Q, Tien PC, Kaplan RC, Hessol NA, Cole S, Vigen C, Cohen M, Young M, Justman J: Association of serum lipid levels with HIV serostatus, specific antiretroviral agents, and treatment regimens. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1:34-42, 2007.

Cooper DA, Gold J, MacLean P: Acute AIDS retrovirus infection: definition of a clinical illness associated with sera conversion. Lancet 11:1376-1377, 1984.

Coyle TE: Management of the HIV-infected patient Part II. Med Clin North Am 81:449-470, 1997.

Crook MA, Mir N: Abnormal lipids and the acquired immuno deficient syndrome is there a problem and what should we do about it. Int J STD AIDS 10:353-356, 1999.

Dalgleish AG, Beverly PCL, Clap ham PR: The CD4 (CT4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus. Nature 312:763-767, 1984.

Ducobu J, Payen MC: Lipids and AIDS. Rev Med Brux 21:11-17, 2000.

Grunfeld C, Kotler DP, Shingenaga JK, Doerrler W, Tierney A, Wang J, Pierson RN Jr, Feingold KR: Circulating Interferon-alpha levels and hyper triglyceridaemia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Med 90:154-162, 1991.

Grunfeld C, Pang M, Doerrier W, Shigenaga JK, Jensen P, Feingold KR: Lipids, lipoproteins, triglyceride clearance and cytokines in human immunodeficiency virus infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 74:1045-1052, 1992.

Harbol AW, Liesveld JL, Simpson-Haidaris PJ, Abboud CN: Mechanisms of cytopenia in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Blood Rev 8:241-250, 1994.

Hazeberg MD, Hamann D, Schuitemaker H, Miedema FT: Cell depletion in HIV-1 infection: how CD4+ T cells go out of stock. Nat Immunol 1:285-289, 2000.

Jaworowki A, Crowe SM: Does HIV causes depletion of CD4+ T cells by the induction of apoptosis. Immunol. Cell Biol 77:90-98, 1999.

Karpatkin S: Immunologic thrombocytopenic purpura in patients at risk for AIDS. Blood Rev 1:119-125, 1987.

Kereveur A, Cambillau M, Kazatchkine M, Moatti N: Lipoprotein anomalies in HIV infection. Ann Med Intern (Paris) 147:333-343, 1996.

Khiangte L, Vidyabati R K, Singh M K, Bilasini Devi S, Rajen Singh T, Gyaneshwar Singh WA: Study of serum lipid profile in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected Patients. JIACM 8:307-311, 2007.

McCune JM, Hanley MB, Cesar D, Halvorsen R, Schmidt D, Wieder E, Deeks S, Siler S, Neese R, Hellerstein M: Factors influencing T-cell turnover in HIV-1 sero positive patients. J Clin Invest 105:565-566, 2000.

Montagnier L, Chermann JC, Berre-Sinoussi F, Chamaret S, Gruest J, Nugeyre MT, Rey F, Dauguet C, Axler-Blin C, Vezinet-Brun F, Rouzioux C, Saimot AG et al.: A new human T-lymphotropic retrovirus: characterization and possible role in lymphadenopathy and acquired immune deficiency syndromes. In Gallo RC, Essex ME, Gross L (eds.): Human T-cell Leukemia Lymphoma Viruses, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York 1984, pp. 363-379.

Mullamitha SA, Pazare AR: Study of Lipid profiles in HIV infection. JAPI 47:622-624, 1999.

National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare: Natural History and Clinical Manifestation of HIV/AIDS. Specialist Training and Reference Module Government of India, New Delhi 2003, pp. 5-8.

Oguntibeju O, Banjoko O: A study on the activities of liver enzymes in HIV/AIDS patients. J Med Sci 3:106-109, 2003.

Rasool ST, Tang H, Wu J, Li W, Mukhtar MM, Zhang J, Mu Y, Xing HX, Wu J, Zhu Y: Increased level of IL-32 during human immunodeficiency virus infection suppresses HIV replication. Immunol Lett 117:161-167, 2008.

Rogowska-Szadkowska D, Borzuchowska A: The levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol in various stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pol Arch Med Wean 101:145-150, 1999.

Shor Posner G, Basit A, Lu Y, Cabrejos C, Chang J, Fletcher M, Mantero-Atienza E, Baum MK: Hypocholesterolaemia is associated with immune dysfunction in early human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection. Am J Med 98:518-520, 1995.

Smith KY, Valdez H, Landay A, Sprizler J, Kessler HA, Connick E, Kuritzkes D, Gross B, Francis I, McCune JM, Lederman MM: Thymic size and lymphocyte restoration in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection after 48 weeks of zidovudine, lamivudine, and ritonavir therapy. J Infect Dis 181:141-147, 2000.

Sullivan PS, Hanson DL, Chu SY, Jones JL, Ward JW: The adult/adolescent spectrum of disease group epidemiology of anemia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons: results from the multi state adult and adolescent spectrum of HIV disease surveillance project. Blood 91:301-308, 1998.

Tietz NW, Rinker A, Richard AD: The measurement of alkaline phosphatase in analytical concepts in enzymology. Vollrhr Smrtisn Pathologist:195-203, 1983.

UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic. UNAIDS 10th Anniversary Special Edition, Geneva, 2006.

Volberding P: HIV infection as a disease: the medical indications for early diagnosis. J Acquire Immune Defic Syndr 2:421-425, 1989.

Walsh CM, Nardi MA, Karpatkin S: On the mechanism of thrombocytopenic purpura in sexually active homosexual men. N Engl J Med 17:311-635, 1984.

Wild up PA, Fortuin F, Donato HC, Whittle A, Hall I: Livers and hepatitis B virus in Gambian children. Medline 2:555-561, 1993.

Kumar A, Sathian B. Assessment of lipid profile in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS) without antiretroviral therapy. Asia- Pac J Tropic Dis. 1: 24-27, 2011.

Thongam N, Kulachandra Singh M, Bhimo Singh T, Gyaneshwar Singh W. Lipid abnormalities in HIV-HCV coinfection and HIV naive. JMS - J Med Soc. 24: 127-130, 2010.

Pohanka M. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies production - preparation of potent biorecognition element. J Appl Biomed. 7: 115-121, 2009.