Journal of APPLIED BIOMEDICINE
ISSN 1214-0287 (on-line)
ISSN 1214-021X (printed)

Volume 7 (2009), No 1, p 15-33




Clock genes in health and diseases

Valerie Mongrain, Nicolas Cermakian

Address: Nicolas Cermakian, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, 6875 LaSalle blvd., Montreal, QC H4H 1R3, Canada
nicolas.cermakian@mcgill.ca

Received 29th January 2009.
Published online 12th March 2009.

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SUMMARY
Circadian rhythms, rhythms of about 24 h in various physiological functions, are getting extensively characterized at the molecular level. The generation of circadian rhythms is acknowledged to originate from oscillations in the expression of several clock genes as well as in the regulation of their protein products. While the general entrainment of organisms to the light-dark cycle of the environment is mainly achieved through the master clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in mammals, the molecular clockworks is functional in an incredible number of organs and tissues. The molecular components of the circadian system have been found to be essential for a diversity of basic and homeostatic systems ranging from the control of cell cycle, the regulation of cardiac and metabolic function, to the fine-tuning of sleep and mental health. The present review will focus on the involvement of clock genes in human health and diseases.

KEY WORDS
clock genes; peripheral clocks; circadian rhythms; human; sleep disorders; psychiatric disorders; cancer; metabolism


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