The ubiquitous polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine fulfil an array of physiological roles in man. In particular, their participation in cell growth and proliferation has been of great interest in relation to their roles in tumour growth and in wound healing. Both endogenous and dietary polyamines take part in such processes. The deprivation of exogenous polyamines emerges as a promising strategy in tumour therapy. Thus, reliable information on their content in foods is needed for dieticians. This review continues our previous comprehensive review on the topic,summarising data on the polyamine content in foods published from 2005 to April 2009. Some new data has appeared. Bovine, porcine and chicken liver, kidney, spleen and heart all have a high content of spermine; bovine liver also of spermidine. Losses of spermidine and spermine up to one half of their original levels occur during both cold and frozen storage and during various thermal treatments. Cultivated mushrooms were reported to contain very high levels of spermidine. Recent results have proved that polyamine content varies widely within a food item, and this complicates the application of available data for the controlled nutrition of patients.
polyamines; food; putrescine; spermidine; spermine
Amendola R, Cervelli M, Fratini E, Polticelli F, Sallustio DE, Mariottini P: Spermine metabolism and anticancer therapy. Curr. Cancer Drug Targ 9:118-130, 2009.
Bachrach U: Polyamines and cancer: Minireview article. Amino Acids 26:307-309, 2004.
Bardocz S: Polyamines in food and their consequences for food quality and human health. Trends Food Sci Technol 6:341-346, 1995.
Casero RA, Marton LJ: Targeting polyamine metabolism and function in cancer and other hyperproliferative diseases. Nature Rev. Drug Discov. 6:373-390, 2007.
Cipolla BG, Havouis R, Moulinoux JP: Polyamine contents in current foods: a basis for polyamine reduced diet and a study of its long term observance and tolerance in prostate carcinoma patients. Amino Acids 33:203-212, 2007.
Dandrifosse G (ed.): Biological Aspects of Biogenic Amines, Polyamines and Conjugates, Transworld Research Network, Trivandrum, India, 2009, 438 pp.
Das KC, Misra HP: Hydroxyl radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching properties of polyamines. Mol Cell Biochem 262:127-133, 2004.
Deloyer P, Peulen O, Dandrifosse G.: Dietary polyamines and non-neoplastic growth and disease. Eur J Gastronnter Hepatol 13:1027-1032, 2001.
Frias J, Martinez-Villaluenga C, Gulewicz P, Perez-Romero A, Pilarski R, Gulewicz K, Vidal-Valverde C: Biogenic amines and HL60 cytotoxicity of alfalfa and fenugreek sprouts. Food Chem 105:959-967, 2007.
Genccelep H, Kaban G, Kaya M: Effects of starter cultures and nitrite levels on formation of biogenic amines in sucuk. Meat Sci 77:424-430, 2007.
Gloria MBA, Tavares-Neto J, Labanca RA: Influence of cultivar and germination on bioactive amines in soybeans (Glycine max L. Merill). J Agric Food Chem 53:7480-7485, 2005.
Gugliucci A: Polyamines as clinical laboratory tools. Clin Chim Acta 344:23-35, 2004.
Hillary RA, Pegg AE: Decarboxylases involved in polyamine biosynthesis and their inactivation by nitric oxide. Biochim Biophys Acta 1647:161-166, 2003.
Kalac P: Biologically active polyamines in beef, pork and meat products: A review. Meat Sci 77:1-11, 2006.
Kalac P, Krausova P: A review of dietary polyamines: Formation, implications for growth and health and occurrence in foods. Food Chem 90:219-230, 2005.
Kalac P, Gloria MBA: Biogenic amines in cheeses, wines, beers and sauerkraut. In Dandrifosse G (ed.): Biological Aspects of Biogenic Amines, Polyamines and Conjugates, Transworld Research Network, Trivandrum, India, 2009, pp. 267-310.
Kozova M, Kalac P, Pelikanova T: Biologically active polyamines in pig kidneys and spleen: Content after slaughter and changes during cold storage and cooking. Meat Sci 79:326-331, 2008.
Kozova M, Kalac P, Pelikanova T: Contents of biologically active polyamines in chicken meat, liver, heart and skin after slaughter and their changes during meat storage and cooking. Food Chem 116:419-425, 2009a.
Kozova M, Kalac P, Pelikanova T: Changes in the content of biologically active polyamines during beef loin storage and cooking. Meat Sci 81:607-611, 2009b.
Krausova P, Kalac P, Krizek M, Pelikanova T: Content of polyamines in beef and pork after animal slaughtering. Eur Food Res Technol 223:321-324, 2006a.
Krausova P, Kalac P, Krizek M, Pelikanova T: Content of biologically active polyamines in livers of cattle, pigs and chickens after animal slaughter. Meat Sci 73:640-644, 2006b.
Krausova P, Kalac P, Krizek M, Pelikanova T: Changes in the content of biologically active polyamines during storage and cooking of pig liver. Meat Sci 77:269-274, 2007.
Krausova P, Kalac P, Krizek M, Pelikanova T: Changes in the content of biologically active polyamines during pork loin storage and culinary treatments. Eur Food Res Technol 226:1007-1012, 2008.
Kurt S, Zorba O: The effects of ripening period, nitrite level and heat treatment on biogenic amine formation of "sucuk" - a Turkish dry fermented sausage. Meat Sci 82:179-184, 2009.
Kusano T, Berberich T, Tateda C, Takahashi Y: Polyamines: essential factors for growth and survival. Planta 228:367-381, 2008.
Lagishetty CV, Naik SR: Polyamines: Potebntial anti-inflammatory agents and their possible mechanism of action. Indian J Pharmac 40:121-125, 2008.
Larque E, Sabater-Molina M, Zamora S: Biological significance of dietary polyamines. Nutrition 23:87-95, 2007.
Lavizzari T, Veciana-Nogues MT, Weingart O, Bover-Cid S, Marine-Font A, Vidal-Carou MC: Occurrence of biogenic amines and polyamines in spinach and changes during storage and refrigeration. J Agric Food Chem 55:9514-9519, 2007.
Linsalata M, Russo F: Nutritional factors and polyamine metabolism in colorectal cancer. Nutrition 24:382-389, 2008.
Lorenzo JM, Martinez S, Franco I, Carballo J: Biogenic amine content during the manufacture of dry-cured lacon, a Spanish traditional meat product: Effect of some additives. Meat Sci 77:287-293, 2007.
Lorenzo JM, Martinez S, Franco I, Carballo J: Biogenic amine content in relation to physicochemical parameters and microbial counts in two kinds of Spanish traditional sausages. Arch Lebensmittelhyg 59:70-75, 2008.
Martinez-Villaluenga C, Frias J, Gulewicz P, Gulewicz K, Vidal-Valverde C: Food safety evaluation of broccoli and radish sprouts. Food Chem Toxicol 46:1635-1644, 2008.
Matsumoto M, Benno Y: The relationship between microbiota and polyamine concentration in the human intestine: A pilot study. Microbiol Immunol 51:25-35, 2007.
Matsumoto M, Kakizoe K, Benno Y: Comparison of fecal microbiota and polyamine concentrations in adult patients with intractable atopic dermatitis and healthy adults. Microbiol Immunol 51:37-46, 2007.
Michaelidou AM: Factors influencing nutritional and health profile of milk and milk products. Small Rumin Res 79:42-50, 2008.
Moinard C, Cynober L, de Bandt JL: Polyamines: metabolism and implications in human diseases. Clin Nutr 24:184-197, 2005.
Moreira APS, Giombelli A, Labanca RA, Nelson DL, Gloria MBA: Effect of aging on bioactive amines, microbial flora, physico-chemical characteristics, and tenderness of broiler breast meat. Poultry Sci 87:1868-1873, 2008.
Moret S, Smela D, Populin T, Conte LS: A survey of free biogenic amine content of fresh and preserved vegetables. Food Chem 89:355-361, 2005.
Nishibori N, Fujihara S, Akatuki T: Amounts of polyamines in foods in Japan and intake by Japanese. Food Chem 100:491-497, 2007.
Nishimura K, Shiina R, Kashiwagi K, Igarashi K: Decrease in polyamines with aging and their ingestion from food and drink. J Biochem 139:81-90, 2006.
Paulsen P, Hagen U, Bauer F: Changes in biogenic amine contents, non-protein nitrogen and crude protein during curing and thermal processing of M. longissimus, pars lumborum of pork. Eur Food Re Technol. 223:603-608, 2006.
Paulsen P, Bauer F: Spermine and spermidine concentrations in pork loin as affected by storage, curing and thermal processing. Eur Food Res Technol 225:921-924, 2007.
Paulsen P, Dicakova Z, Bauer F: Biogenic amines and polyamines in liver, kidney and spleen of roe deer and European brown hare. Eur Food Res Technol 227:209-213, 2008.
Ralph A, Englyst K, Bardocz S (1999): Polyamine content of the human diet. In Bardocz S and White A (eds.): Polyamines in Health and Nutrition, Kluwer Acad Publ London, pp. 123-137.
Rider JE, Hacker A, Mackintosh CA, Pegg AE, Woster PM, Casero RA Jr: Spermine and spermidine mediate protection against oxidative damage caused by hydrogen peroxide. Amino Acids 33:231-240, 2007.
Righetti L, Tassoni A, Bagni N: Polyamines content in plant derived food: A comparison between soybean and Jerusaleme artichoke. Food Chem 111:852-856, 2008.
Ruiz-Capillas C, Jimenez Colmenero F, Carrascosa AV, Munoz R: Biogenic amine production in Spanish dry-cured "chorizo" sausage treated with high-pressure and kept in chilled storage. Meat Sci 77:365-371, 2007.
Seiler N: Catabolism of polyamines. Amino Acids 26:217-233, 2004.
Til HP, Falke HE, Prinsen MK, Willems MI: Acute and subacute toxicity of tyramine, spermidine, spermine, putrescine and cadaverine in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 35:337-348, 1997.
Toninello A, Pietrangeli P, de Marchi U, Salvi M, Mondovi B: Amine oxidases in apoptosis and cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta 1765:1-13, 2006.
Vieira SM, Theodoro KH, Glória MBA: Profile and level of bioactive amines in orange juice and orange soft drink. Food Chem 100:895-903, 2007.
Wang YL, Casero RA: Mammalian polyamine catabolism: A therapeutic target, a pathological problem, or both? J Biochem 139:17-25, 2006.
Weiger TM, Aichberger S, Wallace HM: A comparison of dietary polyamine uptake by humans in Europe, Asia and the USA. In Proc. COST 922 Workshop Health Implications of Dietary Amines, Coimbra, Portugal, 2005, p. 33.
Weiss TS, Herfarth H, Obermeier F, Ouart J, Vogl D, Scholmerich J, Jauch KW, Rogler G.: Intracellular polyamine levels of intestinal epithelial cells in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 10:529-535, 2004.
Wood PL, Khan MA, Moskal JR: The concept of "aldehyde load" in neurodegenerative mechanisms: Cytotoxicity of the polyamine degradation products hydrogen peroxide, acrolein, 3-aminopropanal, 3-acetamidopropanal and 4-aminobutanal in a retinal ganglion cell line. Brain Res 1145:150-156, 2007.
Zoumas-Morse C, Rock CL, Quintana EL, Neuhouser ML, Gerner EW, Meyskens FL: Development of a polyamine database for assessing dietary intake. J Am Diet Assoc 107:1024-1027, 2007.
Cardozo M, Lima KDSC, Franca TCC, Lima ALDS. Aminas biogenicas: Um problema de saude publica. [Biogenic amines: A public health problem]. Rev Virtual Quimica. 5: 149-168, 2013.
Spizzirri UG, Restuccia D, Curcio M, Parisi OI, Iemma F, Picci N. Determination of biogenic amines in different cheese samples by LC with evaporative light scattering detector. J Food Compos Anal. 29: 43-51, 2013.
Zhang JX, Shi L, Chen DF, Wang J, Wang Y. Effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve child feeding practices and growth in rural China: updated results at 18 months of age. Maternal Child Nutr. 9: 118-129, 2013.
Ladero V, Canedo E, Perez M, Martin MC, Fernandez M, Alvarez MA. Multiplex qPCR for the detection and quantification of putrescine-producing lactic acid bacteria in dairy products. Food Control. 27: 307-313, 2012.
Rauscher-Gabernig E, Gabernig R, Brueller W, Grossgut R, Bauer F, Paulsen P. Dietary exposure assessment of putrescine and cadaverine and derivation of tolerable levels in selected foods consumed in Austria. Eur Food Res Technol. 235: 209-220, 2012.
Ruiz-Cano D. Perez-Llamas F, Zamora S. Polyamines, implications for infant health. Arch Argentinos Peditr. 110: 244-250, 2012.
Garcon DP, Lucena MN, Franca JL, McNamara JC, Fontes CFL, Leone FA. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase Activity in the Posterior Gills of the Blue Crab, Callinectes ornatus (Decapoda, Brachyura): Modulation of ATP Hydrolysis by the Biogenic Amines Spermidine and Spermine. J Membr Biol. 244: 9-20, 2011.
Naila A, Flint S, Fletcher G, Bremer P, Meerdink G. Control of Biogenic Amines in Food-Existing and Emerging Approaches. J Food Sci. 75: R139-R150, 2010.