ISSN 1214-0287 (on-line)
ISSN 1214-021X (printed)

Volume 7 (2009), No 2 p 111-114

The translocation of AgNORs in large nucleoli of early granulocyte progenitors in patients suffering from chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukaemia

Karel Smetana, Ilona Jiraskova, Dana Mikulenkova, Hana Klamova

Address: Karel Smetana, Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, U nemocnice 1, Praha 2, Czech Republic

Received 22nd May 2009.
Revised 29th May 2009.
Published online 1st June 2009.

Full text article (pdf)
Full text article (html)
The present study was undertaken to provide more information of the translocation of AgNORs to the nucleolar periphery in human early granulocyte progenitors such as myeloblasts and promyelocytes. The bone marrow smears of patients untreated or treated with the cytostatic therapy appeared to be a convenient model for such study because they possessed a satisfactory number of these cells. The translocation of AgNORs to the nucleolar periphery in early granulocytic progenitors was observed in all studied patients but with different incidence. Since the translocation of AgNORs to the nucleolar periphery was induced in experimental studies in vitro by the cell ageing, it seems to be likely that even some granulocyte progenitors in patients suffering from chronic myeloid leukaemia might age without a further differentiation. In addition, the incidence of such cells was markedly and significantly increased by the targeted cytostatic therapy with imatinib. At this occasion it should be noted that these patients were also characterised by a significantly decreased granulopoiesis.

AgNORs; intranucleolar translocation; leukaemia early granulocyte progenitors; cytostatic therapy

Baccarani M, Russo D, Rosti G, Martinelli G: Interferon alfa for chronic myeloid leukemia. Semin Hematol 40:22-33, 2003.

Bessis M: Living Blood Cells and their Ultrastructure. Springer, Berlin 1972.

Boisvert FM, von Koningsbruggen S, Navascuez J, Lamond AI: The multifunctional nucleolus. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 7:574-585, 2007.

Braziel RM, Launder TM, Druker BJ, Olson SB, Magenis RE, Mauro MJ, Sawyers CL, Paquette RL, O´Dwyer ME: Hematopathologic and cytogenetic findings in imatinib mesylate-treated chronic myelogeneous leukemia patients: 14 months experience. Blood 100:435-441, 2002.

Busch H: Nucleolar and nucleolonemal proteins of cancer cells. Journal of Tumor Marker Oncology 12:5-68, 1977.

Busch H, Smetana K: The nucleolus. Academic Press, New York 1970.

Chen M, Rockel T, Steinweger G, Hemmerich P, Risch J, von Mikecz A: Subcellular recruitment of fibrillarin to nucleoplasmin proteasomes: implications for processing of a nucleolar autoantigen. Mol Biol Cell 13:3576-3587, 2002.

Derenzini M: The AgNORs. Micron 31:117-20, 2000.

Gavosto F, Pileri A, Bachi C, Pegoraro L: (1964) Proliferation and maturation defect in acute leukaemia cells. Nature 203:92-94, 1964.

Grotto HZW, Lorand Metze I, Metze K: Nucleolar organizer regions in normal hematopoiesis: relationship to cellular proliferation and maturation. Nouv Rev Fr Hematol 33:1-4, 1991.

Grotto HZW, Metze K, Lorand-Metze I: Patttern of nucleolar organizer regions in human leukemic cells. Anal Cell Pathol 5:203-212, 1993.

Hozak P, Cook PR, Schofer C, Mosgoller W, Wachtler F: Site of transcription of ribosomal RNA and intranucleolar structure in HeLa cells. J Cell Sci 107:639-678, 1994.

Maekawa T, Ashihara E, Kimura S: The Bcr-Abla tyrosin kinase inhibitor imatinib and promising new agents against Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemias. Int J Clin Oncol 12:327-340, 2007.

Ochs RL: Methods used to study structure and function of the nucleolus. Methods Cell Biol 53:303-221, 1998.

Olson MOJ, Dundr M, Szebeni A: The nucleolus an old factory with unecpected capabilities. Trends Cell Biol 10:189-196, 2000.

Pederson T: The pluripotent nucleolus. Nucleic Acids Res 26:3871-2036, 1998.

Raska I: Searching for active ribosomal genes. In: Jeanteur P (ed) Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology. Springer, Berlin 2003, pp. 23-56.

Rundles RW: Chronic myelogenous leukaemia. In: Hematology, Williams WJ, Beutler E, Erslev AJ, Lichtman MA eds, McGraw-Hill, New York 1983, p 196-213.

Scharf A, Rockel TD, von Mikecz A: Localization of proteasomes and proteasomal proteolysis in the mammalian interphase cell nucleus by systematic application of immunocytochemistry. Histochem Cell Biol 127:591-601, 2007.

Smetana K: (2002) Structural features of nucleoli in blood, leukemic, lymphoma and myeloma cells. Eur J Histochem 46:125-132, 2002.

Smetana K, Grebenova D, Jiraskova I, Doubek M, Marinov Y, Hrkal Z: A note on the decreased number and loss of fibrillar centers in nucleoli of apoptotic HL-60 leukaemic granulocytic precursors produced by 5-aminolavulinic acid-based photodynamic treatment. Folia biologica 50:15-20, 2004.

Smetana K, Jiraskova I, Perlaky L, Busch H: The silver reaction of nucleolar proteins in the main structural compartments of ring shaped nucleoli in smear preparations. Acta Histochem 101:167-183, 1999.

Smetana K, Klamova H, Jiraskova I, Subrtova H, Rosa L: The number of nucleoli expressed by the nuclear coefficient in the granulopoietic bone marrow compartment in not-eukemic persons and patients suffering from chronic myeloid leukemia. Haematologica 83:476-477, 1998.

Smetana K, Klamova H, Pluskalova M, Stockbauer P, Hrkal Z: Intranucleolar translocation of AgNORs in early granulocytic precursors in chronic myeloid leukaemia and K 562 cells. Folia Biol 51:89-92, 2005.

Smetana K, Klamova H, Pluskalova M, Stockbauer P, Hrkal Z: The intranucleolar translocation of AgNORs in leukemic early granulocytic and plasmacytic precursors. Histochem Cell Biol 125:163-170, 2006.

Smetana K, Likovsky Z: Nucleolar silver-stained granules in maturing erythroid and granulocytic series. Cell Tissue Res 237:367-370, 1984.

Smetana K, Pluskalova M, Jiraskova I, Hrkal Z: A morphological and cytochemical note to the reversible intranucleolar translocation of AgNORs (silver stained nucleolus organizer regions) in early leukemic granulocytic progenitors represented by cultured K 562 cells. J Appl Med 3:193-198, 2005.

Undritz E: Hamatologische Tafeln. Sandoz, Basel 1972.

Liu ZL, Chen R, Liao NF, Li ZQ, Wang Y. Spectrum Analysis and Measurment Research on Visual Density of the National Standard Densitometer. Spectrosp Spect Anal. 32: 3315-3318, 2012.

Smetana K. The nucleolus through the years. J Appl Biomed. 9: 119-127, 2011.