The present study was carried out to investigate the hypoglycaemic effect of S-allyl cysteine (SAC), a garlic component, on some biochemical parameters of STZ induced diabetic rats. STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with SAC at two different doses (100 mg/kg b.w. and 150 mg/kg b.w.) for 45 days. Treatment with SAC significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood urea, serum uric acid, serum creatinine, and diminished activities of pathophysiological enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The antihyperglycaemic nature of SAC is also evidenced from the improvement in the levels of plasma insulin and haemoglobin. Further, the results are comparable with glyclazide, an oral standard drug. A 150 mg/kg b.w. dose produced a better effect than a 100 mg dose. Thus, the present findings suggest that SAC may be considered as an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
streptozotocin; Allium sativum; S-allyl cysteine; diabetes mellitus
ADA: Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 32:S62-S67, 2009.
Almadal TP, Vilstrup H: Strict insulin treatment normalizes the organic nitrogen contents and the capacity of urea-nitrogen synthesis in experimental diabetes in rats. Diabetologia 31:114-118, 1988.
Anwar MM, Meki AMR: Oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: effects of garlic oil and melatonin. Comp Biochem Physiol 135:539-547, 2003.
Augusti KT, Sheela CG: Antiperoxide effect of S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide, an insulin secretagogue, in diabetic rats. Experientia 52:115-120, 1996.
Banerjee SK, Maulik SK: Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review. Nutr J 1:4-8, 2002.
Baynes JW: Role of oxidative stress in development of complications in diabetes. Diabetes 40:405-412, 1991.
Becker BF: Towards the physiological function of uric acid. Free Radic Biol Med 14:615-631, 1993.
Block E: The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium: implications for the organic chemistry of sulfur. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 31:1135-1178, 1992.
Brod J, Sirota JH: The renal clearance of endogenous "creatinine" in man. J Clin Invest 27:645-654, 1948.
Brosnan JT, Man KC: Interorgan metabolism of aminoacids in STZ induced diabetic rats. Am J Physiol 244:151-158, 1984.
Bunn HF, Shapiro RM, McManus M, Garrick LM, McDonald MJ, Gallop PM, Gabbay KH: Structural heterogeneity of human haemoglobin A due to nonenzymatic glycosylation. J Biol Chem 254:3892-3898, 1979.
Caraway WI: Uric acid. In Seligson D (ed.): Standard Methods of Clinical Chemistry, Vol. 4, Academic Press, New York 1963, pp. 239-247.
Carson JF: Chemistry and biological properties of onion and garlic. Food Res Intern 3:71-103, 1987.
Chen K, Ianuzzo CD: Dosage effect of streptozotocin on rat tissue enzyme activities and glycogen concentration. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 60:1251-1256, 1982.
Chu Q, Lee DT, Tsao SW, Wang X, Wong YC: S-allylcysteine, a water-soluble garlic derivative, suppresses the growth of a human androgen-independent prostate cancer xenograft, CWR22R, under in vivo conditions. BJU Int 99:925-932, 2007.
Defronzo RA, Hendelkar R, Simonson D: Insulin resistance is prominent feature of insulin dependent diabetes. Diabetes 31:795-801, 1982.
Drabkin DL, Austin JH: Spectrophotometric constants for common hemoglobin derivatives in human, dog and rabbit blood. J Biol Chem 98:719-733, 1932.
El-Demerdash FM, Yousef MI, Abou El-Naga NI: Biochemical study on the hypoglycemic effects of onion and garlic in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Food Chem Toxicol 43:57-63, 2005.
Ganong WF: Review of Medical Physiology, 17th ed. Lange Med. Publ., Los Angeles, USA 1995, p. 86.
Garber AJ: The impact of STZ- induced diabetes mellitus on cyclic nucleotide regulation of muscle amino acid metabolism in the rat. J Clin Invest 65:478-487, 1980.
Green M, Miller LL: Protein catabolism and protein synthesis in perfused livers of normal and alloxan-diabetic rats. J Biol Chem 235:3202-3208, 1960.
Herrera-Mundo MN, Silva-Adaya D, Maldonado PD, Galvan-Arzate S, Andres-Martinez L, Perez-De La Cruz V, Pedraza-Chaverri J, Santamaria A: S-allylcysteine prevents the rat from 3-nitropropionic acid-induced hyperactivity early markers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Neurosci Res 56:39-44, 2006.
Joy KL, Kuttan K: Antidiabetic activity of Picrorrhiza kurroa extract. J Ethnopharmacol 67:143-148, 1999.
Kaleem M, Asif M, Ahmed Q, Bano B: Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Annona squamosa extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Singapore Med J 47:670-675, 2006.
Kim SH, Hyun SH, Choung SYM: Antidiabetic property of cinnamon extract on blood glucose in db/db mice. J Ethnopharmacol 104:119-123, 2006.
King J: The hydrolases-acid and alkaline phosphatases. In Van D (ed.): Practical Clinical Enzymology. Nostrand Co., London 1965a, pp. 199-208.
King J: The transaminases: alanine and aspartate transaminases. In Van D (ed.): Practical Clinical Enzymology. Nostrand Co., London 1965b, pp. 363-395.
Koening RJ, Peterson CM, Jones R: Correlation of glucose regulation and haemoglobin A1C in diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 295:417-420, 1978.
Koyama I, Yakushijin M, Goseki M: Partial breakdown of glycated alkaline phosphatases mediated by reactive oxygen species. Clin Chim Acta 275:7-41, 1998.
Kumar G, Sharmila Banu G, Ganesan Murugesan A, Rajasekara Pandian M: Antihyperglycaemic and antiperoxidative effect of Helicteres isora L. bark extracts in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Appl Biomed 5:97-104, 2007.
Kumar PA, Haseeb A, Suryanarayana P, Nasreen Z, Ehtesham G, Bhanuprakash R: Elevated expression of aA- and aB crystallins in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Arch Biochem Biophys 444:77-83, 2005.
Latner A: Clinical Biochemistry. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1958, p. 48.
Lowry OH, Rosebrough J, Farr AL, Randall RJ: Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265-275, 1951.
McKenna DJ, Jones K, Hughes K, Humphrey S: Botanical Medicines, the desk reference for majorherbal supplements, Second Edition. The Haworth Herbal Press, New York 2002, p. 28.
Modan M, Halkin H, Karasik A, Lusky A: Elevated serum uric acid a facet of hyperinsulinaemia. Diabetologia 30:713-718, 1987.
Mori DM, Baviera AM, De Oliveira Ramalho LT, Vendramini RC, Brunetti IL, Pepato MT: Temporal response pattern of biochemical analytes in experimental diabetes. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 38:183-191, 2003.
Moriguchi T, Matsura H, Kodera Y, Itakura Y, Katsuki H, Saito H, Nishiyama N: Neurotrophic activity of organosulfur compounds having a thioallyl group on cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Neurochem Res 22:1449-1452, 1997.
Mortimore GE, Manton CE: Inhibition of insulin of valine turnover in liver. J Biol Chem 245:2375-2383, 1970.
Nakagawa S, Kasuga S, Matsuura H: Prevention of liver damage by aged garlic extract and its components in mice. Phytother Res 3:50-53, 1989.
Natelson S, Scott ML, Beffa C: A rapid method for the estimation of urea in biological fluids. Am J Clin Pathol 21:275-281, 1951.
Navarro CM, Montilla PM, Martin A, Jimenez J, Utrilla PM: Free radicals scavenger and antihepatotoxic activity of Rosmarinus. Planta Med 59:312-314, 1993.
Nayak SS, Pattabiraman TN: A new colorimetric method for the estimation of glycosylated hemoglobin. Clin Chim Acta 109:267-274, 1981.
Ohaeri OC: Effect of garlic oil on the levels of various enzymes in the serum and tissue of streptozotocin diabetic rats. Biosci Rep 21:19-24, 2001.
Peters AL, Davidson MB, Schrige DL, Hasselblad VA: Clinical approach for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus: an analysis using glycosylated haemoglobin levels. Metaanalysis research group on the diagnosis of diabetes using glycated haemoglobin levels. J Am Med Assoc 276:1246-252, 1996.
Pulido N, Suarez A, Casanova B, Romero R, Rodriguez E, Rovira A: Gliclazide treatment of streptozotocin diabetic rats restores GLUT4 protein content and basal glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Metabolism 46:10-13, 1997.
Rajkumar L, Govindarajulu P: Increased degradation of dermal collagen in diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol 29:1081-1083, 1991.
Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Viswanathan V: Burden of type 2 diabetes and its complications- the Indian scenario. Curr Sci 83:1471-1476, 2002.
Rang HP, Dale M, Ritter JKI: The endocrine system pharmacology. In Rank HP, Dale M, Ritter JKI (eds.): Pharmacology, Longman Group. Ltd, London 1991, pp. 505-508.
Sasaki T, Matsy S, Sonae A: Effect of acetic acid concentration on the colour reaction in the O-toluidine boric acid method for blood glucose estimation. Rinsho Kagaku 1:346-353, 1972.
Shirwaikar A, Rajendran S, Barik R: Effect of aqueous bark extract of Garaga pinnata Roxbin streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type II diabetes mellitus. J Ethnopharmacol 107:285-290, 2006.
Travlos GS, Morris RW, Elwell MR, Duke A, Rosenblum S, Thompson MB: Frequency and relationships of clinical chemistry and liver and kidney histopathology findings in 13-week toxicity studies in rats. Toxicology 107:17-29, 1996.
Ueda H, Kaneda N, Kawanishi K, Alves SM, Moriyasu M: A new isoflavone glycoside from Ceiba pentandra (L). Gaertner. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 50:403-404, 2002.
WHO: WHO launches the first global strategy on traditional medicine. WHO/38, Press Release 2002.
Yiping JIA, Ramasamy S, Wood F, Alayash A, Rifkind JM: Crosslinking with O-raffinose lowers oxygenaffinity and stabilizes haemoglobin in a noncooperative T-state conformation. Biochem J 384:367-375, 2004.
Zhang EY, Swaan PW: Determination of membrane protein glycation in diabetic tissue. AAPS PharmSci 20:1-7, 1999.
Zhang XF, Tan BK: Antihyperglycaemic and anti-oxidant properties of Andrographis paniculata in normal and diabetic rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 27:358-363, 2000.
Noor A, Bansal VS, Vijayalakshmi MA. Current update on anti-diabetic biomolecules from key traditional Indian medicinal plants. Curr Sci. 104: 721-727, 2013.
Saravanan G, Ponmurugan P, Begum MS. Effect of S-allylcysteine, a sulphur containing amino acid on iron metabolism in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 27: 143-147, 2013.
Shiju TM, Rajesh NG, Viswanathan P. Renoprotective effect of aged garlic extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 45: 18-23, 2013.
Saravanan G, Ponmurugan P. Ameliorative potential of S-allylcysteine: Effect on lipid profile and changes in tissue fatty acid composition in experimental diabetes. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 64: 639-644, 2012.
Saravanan G. Ponmurugan P. Antidiabetic effect of S-allylcysteine: Effect on Thyroid hormone and circulatory antioxidant system in experimental diabetic rats. J Diabetes Complications. 26: 280-285, 2012.
Saravanan G, Ponmurugan P. Ameliorative potential of S-allyl cysteine on oxidative stress in STZ induced diabetic rats. Chem Biol Interact. 189: 100-106, 2011.
Saravanan G, Ponmurugan P, Kumar GPS, Rajarajan T. Antidiabetic effect of S-allylcysteine: Effect on plasma and tissue glycoproteins in experimental diabetes. Phytomedicine. 17: 1086-1089, 2010.
Saravanan G, Ponmurugan P. Beneficial Effect of S-allylcysteine (SAC) on Blood Glucose and Pancreatic Antioxidant System in Streptozotocin Diabetic Rats. Plant Foods Human Nutr. 65: 374-378, 2010.
Saravanan G, Ponmurugan P, Senthilkumar GP, Rajarajan T. Modulatory effect of S-allylcysteine on glucose metabolism in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. J Functional Foods. 1: 336-340, 2009.